Perspective is the way of reflecting of 3-dimensional objects on a flat surface as how our eyes percept them with some foreshortenings; drawing 3D thing on a 2D surface; in a nutshell something a lot what we need in a drawing.
Every object has a form with depth, height and width; some objects have definite shapes like boxes, book, pen etc; some are formless, amorphous like a piece of rock, burned candle.
A.Parallel Perspective (Projection)
Axonometric (-Isometric –Dimetric –Trimetric)
B.Central (Conic) Perspective
-Zero point -one point -two point -three point perspective -bird’s eye view -worm’s eye view
In here I think central perspective types are more important or useful or interesting, or I just find parallel perspective a bit overwhelming or is too technical, so I will just mention those types and examine central perspective deeper.
The main difference between them is that the parallel projection has lines of projection that are parallel both in reality and in the projection, and central perspective has those lines meet at a vanishing point(s).
In axonometric projection multiple sides of an object are visible in the same image;
in isometric the direction of viewing has the same angle for every three sides which appear equally foreshortened;
in dimetric the direction of viewing has two equal foreshortenings for that 2 surfaces out of three;
in trimetric all of those three surfaces appear unequally foreshortened.
Types of central (conic) perspective:
- zero point perspective
- one point perspective
- two point perspective
- three point perspective
- bird’s eye view
- worm’s eye view
One Point Perspective
Two lines meet at a centre (vanishing point), and while approaching to that centre they get closer and somewhere away they finally meet.
During Renaissance one-point perspective was so popular and was used so often that on the left side is a good example to that.
All the vertical lines, blue ones are parallel to each other; green ones meet at a vanishing point.
For the drawing below I used 2H for guidelines; a soft pencil will be easier for you to delete those lines later. Afterwards, you are not even going to need them.
Well, I decided to draw a street with street lamps. But later I have decided to make some changes in the drawing, still based on the technique.
Here below is a scrawl of a railway which is a classical example for one point perspective actually.
Two Point Perspective
As you see there are 2 vanishing points on the same horizon in the drawing below:
Three Point Perspective
In here we meet 3 vanishing points, to create bird’s and worm’s eye views:
Bird’s eye view
If I could fly
Like the king of the sky
Could not tumble nor fall
I would picture it all
Written and composed by Andi Deris, which is my very old favourite song since middle school, it’s been loong long time.
In here we not only fly guys; we also picture.
BTW, out of topic, there are lots of songs with eagles -mostly- in metal music (like: eagle fly free, where the eagle learns to fly, where eagles dare, eagle has landed).
Anyway, let’s turn to our topic. Skip to worm’s eye view, skip skip skip!
Worm’s eye view
That one is quite interesting just like bird’s eye view. In here replace yourself with a worm or ant and imagine yourself seeing things from very below. Be an Ant-Man.
As you see bird and worm eye views are opposite to each other; like smurfs and Gargamel…
Zero Point Perspective
This is what I like from all of those perspective types, no points, no guidelines,
No, just kidding. There are some examples, like the sea with ripples with one point perspective; but the title here is zero point perspective. So we go on.
Landscapes and nature drawings are such good examples for the zero perspective type.
Here is Sils Maria for those who are concerned.
Please wait for the next post for a more detailed look and steps for those perspective types above.
The end of the 1st post of 2017.
Take rest, keep drawing, be happy.
Love you all!
Have nice sketches!
Source of Parallel Projection:
Source of the Renaissance architecture painting: